Rheumatological Diseases in HIV Infection

Author(s): Liberato Giardullo*, Ada Corrado*, Nicola Maruotti, Cinzia Rotondo*, Francesco Paolo Cantatore*

Journal Name: Current Rheumatology Reviews

Volume 17 , Issue 3 , 2021


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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

A review of the available literature was performed in order to summarize the pathogenic and clinical connections between HIV infection and rheumatological syndromes. The increasing life expectancy during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has led to the observation of many rheumatological manifestations over the years in these types of patients. Although the pathological mechanisms are still not fully understood, several rheumatological diseases have been more commonly observed in the general population, especially after the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and sometimes clinical and serological findings are influenced by the underlying condition which defines a characteristic onset or development of the disease. Autoimmune diseases occur during specific stages of the HIV infection, depending on the underlying pathogenic mechanism being mainly influenced by the CD4+ cells count. Several rheumatological diseases show peculiar clinical manifestations influenced by the underlying HIV infection leading to specific features less commonly observed in the healthy population. Conversely to pathological findings, broadly, HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies (BnAb) observed in several autoimmune diseases, such as SLE, could play a protective role in HIV infection. It is important to evaluate the onset of autoimmune diseases in HIV patients in order to start the appropriate treatment to avoid harmful events. More studies are needed to enlighten the trend of autoimmune diseases during HIV infection. Pathogenic mechanisms and clinical manifestations of rheumatological diseases during HIV infection are discussed in this review.

Keywords: HIV, AIDS, HAART, autoimmune, rheumatology, arthritis.

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VOLUME: 17
ISSUE: 3
Year: 2021
Published on: 08 December, 2020
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DOI: 10.2174/1573397116999201208213717
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