Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles that pass genetic material between various cells to modulate
or alter their biological function. The role of exosomes is to communicate with the target cell for cell-to-cell
communication. Their inherent characteristics of exosomes, such as adhesion molecules, allow targeting specifically
to the receiving cell. Exosomes are involved in cell to cell communication in the immune system including
antigen presentation, natural killer cells (NK cells) and T cell activation/polarisation, immune suppression and
various anti-inflammatory processes. In this review, we have described various functions of exosomes secreted by
the immune cells in initiating, activating and modulating immune responses; and highlight the distinct roles of
exosomal surface proteins and exosomal cargo. Potential applications of exosomes such as distribution vehicles
for immunotherapy are also discussed.
Keywords: Exosome, microRNA, immune system, inflammation, immune response, immunotherapy.
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