Background: The spread of COVID-19 has become a growing cause of mortalities over the globe
since its major outbreak in December 2019. The scientific and medical communities are rallying to study different
strains and probable mutations to develop more rapid and reliable molecular diagnostic tests and possible
therapeutic approaches for SARS-CoV-2.
Introduction: In the first section, following the introductory part, we shed light on structural and pathogenic
features of SARS-CoV-2 and risk factors related to age, gender, neonatal and comorbidities. The next section
summarizes the current diagnostic tests for COVID-19, such as nucleic acid and computed tomography (CT)
techniques, with further emphasis on emerging diagnostic approaches for COVID-19.
Methods: Further, we also review the ongoing therapeutic practices which can block virus-host interaction,
cease viral proliferation or inhibit hyperbolic host immune response with subsections on drug therapy, cell therapy,
immunotherapy and herbal medicines that are being used for the possible treatment of patients.
Results and Conclusion: Among the different promising drugs, remdesivir, by inhibiting the RNA-dependent
RNA-Polymerase activity, gives much better results, including declined viral load and quick lung tissue recovery.
The long-lasting repercussions of COVID-19 have also been discussed at the end. In this review, we have
also critically discussed the progress in several vaccines that are under development.