The Outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its Manifestation

Author(s): Bikash Debnath, Waikhom Somraj Singh, Kuntal Manna*

Journal Name: Coronaviruses
The World's First International Journal Dedicated to Coronaviruses

Volume 2 , Issue 7 , 2021

Article ID: e150721188722
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Graphical Abstract:


The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in Wuhan, China, and soon the infection turned into a pandemic. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the spread of COVID-19 infection. The World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed 4.20% of total deaths globally (March 21, 2020). Within four months (July 21, 2020), the rate of confirmed total deaths was recorded up to 4.17% globally. In India, 909 confirmed cases and 19 deaths were reported by Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, on March 28, 2020. Over a period of 123 days in India, 1638870 confirmed cases and 35684 deaths were reported. COVID-19 can potentially spread from person to person through direct contact or respiratory droplets from coughing and sneezing. The most common symptoms are fever, dry cough, difficulty in breathing, and fatigue. A pregnant mother with COVID-19 has fewer chances of transferring this infection to her newborn baby. Children are less affected than adults from this virus. A specific antiviral drug or vaccine has not been developed to cure the disease to date. Drugs including chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, ritonavir, nafamostat, nitazoxanide, and remdesivir, have been observed to be effective for treating COVID-19. Many vaccine candidates are under investigation in pre-clinical and clinical studies. In this review, we highlight the epidemiology, signs and symptoms, pathogenesis, and mode of transmission of the infection caused by COVID-19, and its effects on a pregnant mother and newborn, and children. We also highlight the preventive measures and drugs that are effective for treating COVID-19.

Keywords: COVID-19, epidemiology, SARS-CoV-2, prevention, pregnancy and newborns, effective drugs.

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Article Details

Year: 2021
Published on: 04 December, 2020
Article ID: e150721188722
Pages: 7
DOI: 10.2174/2666796701999201204121813

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