Recent developments and opportunities in fighting COVID-19

(E-pub Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Vikram Rao, Subrat Kumar Bhattamisra*

Journal Name: Coronaviruses
The World's First International Journal Dedicated to Coronaviruses


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Abstract:

Background: COVID-19, a Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) was first diagnosed in the patients from Wuhan, China in December 2019. Within couple of months of infection, it was declared as pandemic by World health organization. COVID-19 has become the most contagious infection with a serious threat to global health. In this review, we aimed to discuss the pathogenesis, diagnostics, current treatments and potential vaccines for COVID-19.

Methods: An extensive literature search was conducted using keywords “COVID-19”; “Coronavirus”; “SARS-Cov-2”; “SARS” in public domains of Google, Google scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect. Selected articles were used to construct this review.

Results: SARS-Cov-2 uses the Spike (S) protein on its surface to recognize the receptor on angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and bind with 10-folds greater affinity than SARS-Cov-1. Molecular assays and immunoassays are the most frequently used tests whereas computed tomography (CT) scans, Artificial intelligence enabled diagnostic tools were also used in patients. In therapeutic treatment, few drugs were repurposed and there are 23 therapeutic molecules including the repurposed drugs are in different stages of clinical trial. Similarly, development of vaccines is also in the pipeline. Few countries have managed well to contain the spread by rapid testing and identifying the clusters.

Conclusion: Till now, the acute complications and mortality of COVID-19 has been linked to the pre-existing comorbid conditions or age. Besides the development of therapeutic strategies that includes drugs and vaccine, the long term implication of COVID-19 infection in terms of the disorder/disability in the cured/discharged patients is a new area to investigate.

Keywords: COVID-19, Coronavirus, Diagnostics, Pharmacological management, Vaccines, Pathogenesis

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Article Details

(E-pub Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/2666796701999201204120422