Outbreak of Respiratory Infection: nCoV-2019 Current Status and Its Impact on Global Health

Author(s): Saurabh Kumar*, Sandeep Kumar, Adil Karim, Kamlesh Bisht, Abdul Ghani, Vimal Singh Munda

Journal Name: Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews

Volume 16 , Issue 3 , 2020


Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Novel coronavirus-2019 (nCoV-2019) emerged as a potentially infectious respiratory disease caused by newly discovered β-coronavirus. nCoV-19 has emerged as a global pandemic due to the rapid transmission and high infection rate commonly involved in acute respiratory illness. Literature search includes various databases like Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus for studies published using a different combination of keywords “coronavius”, “COVID-19”, “SARS”, “MERS”, “antiviral drugs”, “vaccines”, and “immunity”. We collected epidemiology data from the Worldometer portal (data available till 9 October, 2020). Fever, dry cough, dyspnea, sore throat, or fatigue are common clinical symptoms of the infection. Cytotoxic T-cells and T-helper cells plus Cytotoxic T cells (CD8+) account for maximum (approximately 80%) of total infiltrate in the pulmonary region of the affected nCoV individuals and act as a significant contributor to the clearance of the infection. This review intends to outline the literature concerning the mode of actual transmission, immune response, and possible therapeutic approach against the virus.

Keywords: nCoV-2019, SARS, epidemiology, pandemic, infection, global health.

[1]
Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 2020; 395(10223): 497-506.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5] [PMID: 31986264]
[2]
Sahin AR, Erdogan A, Agaoglu PM, et al. 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak: a review of the current literature. EJMO 2020; 4(1): 1-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.14744/ejmo.2020.12220]
[3]
Almazán F, González JM, Pénzes Z, et al. Engineering the largest RNA virus genome as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000; 97(10): 5516-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.97.10.5516] [PMID: 10805807]
[4]
WHO. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report – 46. 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/docs/default- source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200306-sitrep-46- covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=96b04adf_2
[5]
Pillaiyar T, Meenakshisundaram S, Manickam M. Recent discovery and development of inhibitors targeting coronaviruses. Drug Discov Today 2020; 25(4): 668-88.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2020.01.015] [PMID: 32006468]
[6]
Stadler K, Masignani V, Eickmann M, et al. SARS-beginning to understand a new virus. Nat Rev Microbiol 2003; 1(3): 209-18.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro775] [PMID: 15035025]
[7]
Holmes D. MERS-CoV enigma deepens as reported cases surge. Lancet 2014; 383(9931): 1793.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60866-7] [PMID: 24868566]
[8]
Chen Y, Liu Q, Guo D. Emerging coronaviruses: Genome structure, replication, and pathogenesis. J Med Virol 2020; 92(4): 418-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25681] [PMID: 31967327]
[9]
Benvenuto D, Giovanetti M, Salemi M, et al. The global spread of 2019-nCoV: a molecular evolutionary analysis. Pathog Glob Health 2020; 114(2): 64-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20477724.2020.1725339] [PMID: 32048560]
[10]
Del Rio C, Malani PN. 2019 novel coronavirus-important information for clinicians. JAMA 2020; 323(11): 1039-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.1490] [PMID: 32022836]
[11]
Baud D, Qi X, Nielsen-Saines K, Musso D, Pomar L, Favre G. Real estimates of mortality following COVID-19 infection. Lancet Infect Dis 2020; 20(7): 773.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30195-X] [PMID: 32171390]
[12]
WHO. Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Situation Report - 10. 2019. Available from: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200130-sitrep-10-ncov.pdf?sfvrsn=d0b2e480_2
[13]
Worldometer. COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic. 2020. Available from: https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/
[14]
Adhikari SP, Meng S, Wu YJ, et al. Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review. Infect Dis Poverty 2020; 9(1): 29.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-020-00646-x] [PMID: 32183901]
[15]
Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(13): 1199-207.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2001316] [PMID: 31995857]
[16]
WHO. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Pandemic. 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019
[17]
Li T, Lu H, Zhang W. Clinical observation and management of COVID-19 patients. Emerg Microbes Infect 2020; 9(1): 687-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1741327] [PMID: 32208840]
[18]
Chan JFW, Yuan S, Kok KH, et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person- to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet 2020; 395(10223): 514-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30154-9] [PMID: 31986261]
[19]
WHO. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) advice for the public. 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public
[20]
RAPS. COVID-19 therapeutics tracker. 2020. Available from: https://www.raps.org/news-and-articles/news-articles/2020/3/covid-19-therapeutics-tracker
[22]
Joyner MJ, Bruno KA, Klassen SA, et al. Safety update: COVID-19 convalescent plasma in 20,000 hospitalized patients. Mayo Clin Proc 2020; 95(9): 1888-97.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.06.028] [PMID: 32861333]
[23]
Salazar E, Christensen PA, Graviss EA, et al. Treatment of Coronavirus disease 2019 patients with convalescent plasma reveals a signal of significantly decreased mortality. Am J Pathol 2020; 190(11): 2290-303.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2020.08.001] [PMID: 32795424]
[24]
Casadevall A, Dadachova E, Pirofski LA. Passive antibody therapy for infectious diseases. Nat Rev Microbiol 2004; 2(9): 695-703.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro974] [PMID: 15372080]
[25]
Sridevi K, Munjal A, Chandran A, et al. Convalescent plasma therapy for prophylaxis and treatment of covid-19: a systematic research of facts and files, a narrative review. Ann Clin Lab Res 2020; 8(2): 314.
[26]
Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Netea MG, Rovina N, et al. Complex immune dysregulation in COVID-19 patients with severe respiratory failure. Cell Host Microbe 2020; 27(6): 992-1000.e3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.04.009] [PMID: 32320677]
[27]
Vandewalle J, Luypaert A, De Bosscher K, Libert C. Therapeutic mechanisms of glucocorticoids. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2018; 29(1): 42-54.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tem.2017.10.010] [PMID: 29162310]
[28]
Russell CD, Millar JE, Baillie JK. Clinical evidence does not support corticosteroid treatment for 2019-nCoV lung injury. Lancet 2020; 395(10223): 473-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30317-2] [PMID: 32043983]
[29]
Yang JW, Yang L, Luo RG, Xu JF. Corticosteroid administration for viral pneumonia: COVID-19 and beyond. Clin Microbiol Infect 2020; 26(9): 1171-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.06.020] [PMID: 32603802]
[30]
Shang L, Zhao J, Hu Y, Du R, Cao B. On the use of corticosteroids for 2019-nCoV pneumonia. Lancet 2020; 395(10225): 683-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30361-5] [PMID: 32122468]
[31]
NIH. COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines: Corticosteroids. 2020. Available from: https://www.covid19treatmentguidelines.nih.gov/immune-based-therapy/immunomodulators/corticosteroids/
[32]
Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature 2020; 579(7798): 270-3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7] [PMID: 32015507]
[33]
Lu R, Zhao X, Li J, et al. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. Lancet 2020; 395(10224): 565-74.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30251-8] [PMID: 32007145]
[34]
Yuen KS, Ye ZW, Fung SY, Chan CP, Jin DY. SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: The most important research questions. Cell Biosci 2020; 10: 40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13578-020-00404-4] [PMID: 32190290]
[35]
Lam TTY, Shum MHH, Zhu HC, et al. Identification of 2019-nCoV related coronaviruses in Malayan pangolins in southern China. bioRxiv 2020.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2169-0]
[36]
Guo YR, Cao QD, Hong ZS, et al. The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak - an update on the status. Mil Med Res 2020; 7(1): 11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40779-020-00240-0] [PMID: 32169119]
[37]
Chan JFW, To KKW, Tse H, Jin DY, Yuen KY. Interspecies transmission and emergence of novel viruses: lessons from bats and birds. Trends Microbiol 2013; 21(10): 544-55.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2013.05.005] [PMID: 23770275]
[38]
Lee S, Kim T, Lee E, et al. Clinical course and molecular viral shedding among asymptomatic and symptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection in a community treatment center in the Republic of Korea. JAMA Intern Med 2020; e203862.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.3862] [PMID: 32780793]
[39]
Han D, Li R, Han Y, Zhang R, Li J. COVID-19: Insight into the asymptomatic SARS-COV-2 infection and transmission. Int J Biol Sci 2020; 16(15): 2803-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.48991] [PMID: 33061797]
[40]
Woolhouse ME, Dye C, Etard JF, et al. Heterogeneities in the transmission of infectious agents: implications for the design of control programs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997; 94(1): 338-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.94.1.338] [PMID: 8990210]
[41]
Kumar S. Novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak: Hope and search for effective therapeutic agent. Lett Drug Des Discov 2020; 17(8): 940-2.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570180817999200612095513]
[42]
Akira S, Uematsu S, Takeuchi O. Pathogen recognition and innate immunity. Cell 2006; 124(4): 783-801.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2006.02.015] [PMID: 16497588]
[43]
Kawai T, Akira S. Toll-like receptors and their crosstalk with other innate receptors in infection and immunity. Immunity 2011; 34(5): 637-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2011.05.006] [PMID: 21616434]
[44]
Rogers NC, Slack EC, Edwards AD, et al. Syk-dependent cytokine induction by Dectin-1 reveals a novel pattern recognition pathway for C type lectins. Immunity 2005; 22(4): 507-17.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2005.03.004] [PMID: 15845454]
[45]
Geijtenbeek TB, Gringhuis SI. Signalling through C-type lectin receptors: shaping immune responses. Nat Rev Immunol 2009; 9(7): 465-79.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nri2569] [PMID: 19521399]
[46]
Strasser D, Neumann K, Bergmann H, et al. Syk kinase-coupled C-type lectin receptors engage protein kinase C-δ to elicit Card9 adaptor-mediated innate immunity. Immunity 2012; 36(1): 32-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2011.11.015] [PMID: 22265677]
[47]
Fairman P, Angel JB. The effect of human immunodeficiency virus-1 on monocyte-derived dendritic cell maturation and function. Clin Exp Immunol 2012; 170(1): 101-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2249.2012.04628.x] [PMID: 22943206]
[48]
Cardone M, Ikeda KN, Varano B, Gessani S, Conti L. HIV-1-induced impairment of dendritic cell cross talk with γδ T lymphocytes. J Virol 2015; 89(9): 4798-808.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.03681-14] [PMID: 25673717]
[49]
Cecere TE, Todd SM, Leroith T. Regulatory T cells in arterivirus and coronavirus infections: do they protect against disease or enhance it? Viruses 2012; 4(5): 833-46.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v4050833] [PMID: 22754651]
[50]
Maloir Q, Ghysen K, von Frenckell C, Louis R, Guiot J. [Acute respiratory distress revealing antisynthetase syndrome Rev Med Liege 2018; 73(7-8): 370-5.
[PMID: 30113776]
[51]
Chen J, Lau YF, Lamirande EW, et al. Cellular immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection in senescent BALB/c mice: CD4+ T cells are important in control of SARS-CoV infection. J Virol 2010; 84(3): 1289-301.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01281-09] [PMID: 19906920]
[52]
Dutzan N, Abusleme L. The Helper 17 Cells as Pathogenic Drivers of Periodontitis.Oral Mucosal Immunity and Microbiome. Oral Mucosal Immunity and Microbiome 2019; 107-17.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-28524-1_9]
[53]
Ying T, Du L, Ju TW, et al. Exceptionally potent neutralization of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus by human monoclonal antibodies. J Virol 2014; 88(14): 7796-805.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00912-14] [PMID: 24789777]
[54]
Houser KV, Gretebeck L, Ying T, et al. Prophylaxis With a Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV)-specific human monoclonal antibody protects rabbits from MERS-CoV infection. J Infect Dis 2016; 213(10): 1557-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiw080] [PMID: 26941283]
[55]
Uno Y. Camostat mesilate therapy for COVID-19. Intern Emerg Med 2020; 15(8): 1577-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-020-02345-9] [PMID: 32347443]
[56]
Roshanravan N, Ghaffari S, Hedayati M. Angiotensin converting enzyme-2 as therapeutic target in COVID-19. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2020; 14(4): 637-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.05.022] [PMID: 32428864]
[57]
Frediansyah A, Tiwari R, Sharun K, Dhama K, Harapan H. Antivirals for COVID-19: A critical review. Clin Epidemiol Glob Health 2020.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cegh.2020.07.006]
[58]
Xia S, Liu M, Wang C, et al. Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 (previously 2019-nCoV) infection by a highly potent pan-coronavirus fusion inhibitor targeting its spike protein that harbors a high capacity to mediate membrane fusion. Cell Res 2020; 30(4): 343-55.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41422-020-0305-x] [PMID: 32231345]
[59]
Gordon CJ, Tchesnokov EP, Feng JY, Porter DP, Götte M. The antiviral compound remdesivir potently inhibits RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. J Biol Chem 2020; 295(15): 4773-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.AC120.013056] [PMID: 32094225]
[60]
Li G, De Clercq E. Therapeutic options for the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Nat Rev Drug Discov 2020; 19(3): 149-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41573-020-00016-0] [PMID: 32127666]
[61]
Kumar S, Sharma V, Priya K. Battle against COVID-19: Efficacy of Convalescent Plasma as an emergency therapy. Am J Emerg Med 2020.
[62]
Luo H, Tang QL, Shang YX, et al. Can Chinese medicine Be used for prevention of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19)? a review of historical classics, research evidence and current prevention programs. Chin J Integr Med 2020; 26(4): 243-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-020-3192-6] [PMID: 32065348]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 16
ISSUE: 3
Year: 2020
Page: [156 - 164]
Pages: 9
DOI: 10.2174/1573398X16999201203162129
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 18
HTML: 2
EPUB: 1
PRC: 1