Introduction: One of the basic concepts of traditional medicine (TM) is temperament
(mizaj), which plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. In TM, depression
and hopelessness were assumed to be related to the coldness of temperament. To verify this assumption,
the current study was designed to examine the association of depression and hopelessness
with the hot/cold status of temperament in females.
Methods: The sample included 340 healthy females from Fars province, southern Iran. Depression
and hopelessness scores were measured using Beck’s depression inventory and Beck’s hopelessness
scales, respectively. Participants’ hot/cold status of temperament was determined using a self-
-reported temperament identification scale, which classified the volunteers’ temperament into three
groups, including warm, temperate and cold. One way analysis of variance and the post-hoc Bonferoni
test were applied for comparison between the study groups.
Results: According to the result, the mean of depression and hopelessness scores in the cold group
was significantly higher than that of the warm group (for depression: p < 0.01, for hopelessness: p
Discussion: The results of this study revealed the association of depression and hopelessness
scores with the coldness of temperament, which supports the theoretical principles of TM concerning
the correlation of coldness with less positive modes.
Conclusion: In conclusion, based on the data of this study, depression and hopelessness scores appear
to be affected by temperament. These findings, therefore, may promise to take advantage of
traditional medicine in the prevention and treatment of mental disorders.