Age-related (physiological) AH is an important problem in pediatric otorhinolaryngology.
Since the beginning of the 70s, there has been an increase in the proportion of children with
pharyngeal tonsil hypertrophy. Functional disorders of the oropharynx in children occupy the second
place based on their incidence (after disorders of the musculoskeletal system). In previous
years, there has been an increase in the incidence and prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
(OSAS) among children. In most cases of pediatric OSAS, upper airway obstruction occurs
from the nasopharynx to the oropharynx, caused by upper airway stenosis. Consequences of untreated
OSAS in children can be inattention and behavioral problems, daytime sleepiness, and in
more severe cases are associated with a variety of comorbidities. The current review discusses the
links between hypertrophied adenoids, craniofacial development and OSAS in children taking into
account physiological and pathophysiological aspects as well as clinical evaluation of the problem.