Purpose of Review: To provide an updated analysis of the possible use of non-steroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as treatments for Alzheimer´s disease (AD).
Recent Findings: Neuroinflammation in AD is an active field of research, with increasing evidence
from basic and clinical studies for an involvement of innate or adaptive immune responses in the
pathophysiology of AD. Few clinical trials with anti-inflammatory drugs have been performed in the
last decade, with negative results.
Summary: Besides the information gathered from basic research, epidemiological studies have provided
conflicting findings, with most case-control or prevalence studies suggesting an inverse relationship
between NSAIDs use and AD, but divided results in prospective population-based incident
cohort studies. Clinical trials with different NSAIDs are almost unanimous in reporting an absence of
clear benefit in AD.
Conclusion: The modulation of inflammatory responses is a promising therapeutic strategy in AD.
After three decades of research, it seems that conventional NSAIDs are not the best pharmacological
option, both for their lack of clear effects and for an unfavorable side-effect profile in long-term
treatment. The development of other anti-inflammatory drugs as candidate treatments in AD may
benefit from the knowledge acquired with NSAIDs.