Background: Due to the rapid growth in life threatening diseases such as cancer, diabetes, chronic
wound and HIV/AIDS along with rise of side effects of the current treatments, world is now focusing to utilize
new treatment options. Currently, the development of green nanotechnology field seems as a potential alternate
for diseases diagnosis and treatment by preparation of various sizes and shapes of nanomaterials.
Objective: This review is to present the explored biological sources in synthesis of nanomaterials particularly
metal and metal oxides nanoparticles and critical review of the applications of biosynthesized nanoparticles in
pharmaceutical and biomedical fields.
Methods: In this review, the various biological sources including bacteria, fungi, algae and plants used in synthesis
of nanomaterials and mechanism involved in preparation are elaborated. In addition, biosynthesized nanomaterials
applied as drug delivery system for anticancer, antibiotic, antidiabetic agent and functioned as potential
diagnostic, antimicrobial, anticancer and wound healing candidates are comprehensively reviewed.
Results: The synthesized metal and metal oxides from green protocol proved to have advantages such as being
biocompatible, effective and cheap. Furthermore, the green synthesized metal and metal oxide nanoparticles
showed to possess prominent physical, chemical and biological properties that can be efficiently utilized for
pharmaceutical and biomedical applications.
Conclusion: The information gathered in this review will provide a baseline for exploring more potential usage of
green synthesized metal and metal oxide nanomaterials for various other applications. However, a concrete understanding
of the safety of these nanomaterials is still needed to minimize the potential side effects.