Background: The emergence of generative adversarial networks (GANs) has provided new technology
and framework for the application of medical images. Specifically, a GAN requires little to no labeled data
to obtain high-quality data that can be generated through competition between the generator and discriminator
networks. Therefore, GANs are rapidly proving to be a state-of-the-art foundation, achieving enhanced performances
in various medical applications.
Methods: In this article, we introduce the principles of GANs and their various variants, deep convolutional
GAN, conditional GAN, Wasserstein GAN, Info-GAN, boundary equilibrium GAN, and cycle-GAN.
Results: All various GANs have found success in medical imaging tasks, including medical image enhancement,
segmentation, classification, reconstruction, and synthesis. Furthermore, we summarize the data processing
methods and evaluation indicators. Finally, we note the limitations of existing methods and the existing
challenges that need to be addressed in this field.
Conclusion: Although GANs are in the initial stage of development in medical image processing, it will have a
great prospect in the future.