Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic and complex metabolic disorder, and also an important cause of
cardiovascular (CV) diseases (CVDs). Subclinical inflammation, observed in patients with type 2 DM (T2DM), cannot be
considered the sole or primary cause of T2DM in the absence of classical risk factors, but it represents an important
mechanism that serves as a bridge between primary causes of T2DM and its manifestation. Progress has been made in the
identification of effective strategies to prevent or delay the onset of T2DM. It is important to identify those at increased risk
for DM by using specific biomarkers. Inflammatory markers correlate with insulin resistance (IR) and glycoregulation in
patients with DM. Also, several inflammatory markers have been shown to be useful in assessing the risk of developing
DM and its complications. However, the intertwining of pathophysiological processes and the not-quite-specificity of
inflammatory markers for certain clinical entities limits their practical use. In this review we consider the advantages and
disadvantages of various inflammatory biomarkers of DM that have been investigated to date as well as possible future
directions. Key features of such biomarkers should be high specificity, non-invasiveness and cost-effectiveness.
Keywords: diabetes mellitus, inflammatory markers, insulin resistance, obesity, atherosclerosis, emerging biomarkers.
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