Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic and complex metabolic disorder, and also an important cause of
cardiovascular (CV) diseases (CVDs). Subclinical inflammation, observed in patients with type 2 DM (T2DM),
cannot be considered the sole or primary cause of T2DM in the absence of classical risk factors, but it represents
an important mechanism that serves as a bridge between primary causes of T2DM and its manifestation.
Progress has been made in the identification of effective strategies to prevent or delay the onset of T2DM. It is
important to identify those at increased risk for DM by using specific biomarkers. Inflammatory markers correlate
with insulin resistance (IR) and glycoregulation in patients with DM. Also, several inflammatory markers
have been shown to be useful in assessing the risk of developing DM and its complications. However, the intertwining
of pathophysiological processes and the not-quite-specificity of inflammatory markers for certain clinical
entities limits their practical use. In this review we consider the advantages and disadvantages of various inflammatory
biomarkers of DM that have been investigated to date as well as possible future directions. Key features
of such biomarkers should be high specificity, non-invasiveness and cost-effectiveness.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, inflammatory markers, insulin resistance, obesity, atherosclerosis, emerging biomarkers.
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