Background: Infectious encephalitis is a serious and challenging condition to manage.
This overview summarizes the current literature regarding the etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis,
management, and recent patents of acute childhood infectious encephalitis.
Methods: We used PubMed Clinical Queries as a search engine and used keywords of “encephalitis”
AND “childhood” Patents were searched using the key term “encephalitis” in google.patents.-
com and patentsonline.com.
Results: Viral encephalitis is the most common cause of acute infectious encephalitis in children.
In young children, the clinical manifestations can be non-specific. Provision of empiric antimicrobial
therapy until a specific infectious organism has been identified, which in most cases includes
acyclovir, is the cornerstone of therapy. Advanced investigation tools, including nucleic acid-based
test panel and metagenomic next-generation sequencing, improve the diagnostic yield of identifying
an infectious organism. Supportive therapy includes adequate airway and oxygenation, fluid
and electrolyte balance, cerebral perfusion pressure support, and seizure control. Recent patents are
related to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of acute infectious encephalitis.
Conclusion: Viral encephalitis is the most common cause of acute infectious encephalitis in children
and is associated with significant morbidity. Recent advances in understanding the genetic basis
and immunological correlation of infectious encephalitis may improve treatment. Third-tier diagnostic
tests may be incorporated into clinical practice. Treatment is targeted at the infectious process
but remains mostly supportive. However, specific antimicrobial agents and vaccines development