Lack of environmental sustainability is a growing and pivotal matter due to the issues
such as disturbances associated with biodiversity pollution and climate change. Pollutants are the
major cause of these environmental threats in the atmosphere. At present, nano-based photocatalysts
are at the forefront of the author's interest because of their promising potential as a green
chemical-based compound, high catalytic activity, suitable and controllable surface area for
wastewater treatment. Semiconductor materials on a nano-sized scale have electronic and optical
properties depending on their building block size, which plays a vital role in developing smart materials
that are well-efficient for simultaneously destroying harmful chemical contaminants from
our environment. This makes these materials useful in many possible industrial applications, such
as water purification. In this review, we have reported the most significant results contributing to
the progress in the area of environmental hazardous pollutant detection and removal focused on
water purification especially through photocatalysis to give readers an overview of the present research
trends. Moreover, we have analyzed previous studies to indicate key principles of photocatalysis
and provide guidelines that can be used to fabricate more efficient photocatalysts.
Keywords: Photocatalysis, semiconductors, nanomaterials, water purification, pollutants, green chemistry.
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