Since the discovery of ischemic pre- and post-conditioning, more than 30 years ago, the
knowledge about the mechanisms and signaling pathways involved in these processes has significantly
increased. In clinical practice, on the other hand, such advancement has yet to be seen. This article provides
an overview of ischemic pre-, post-, remote, and pharmacological conditioning related to the
heart. In addition, we reviewed the cardioprotective signaling pathways and therapeutic agents involved
in the above-mentioned processes, aiming to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the advancements
in the field. The advancements made over the last decades cannot be ignored and with the exponential
growth in techniques and applications. The future of pre- and post-conditioning is promising.