Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. The surgical
management of the tumor is the best therapeutic option for gastric cancer patients. A combination of a heterogeneous
distribution of genetic and environmental factors appears to be required to explain patients' poor prognosis.
A search for targeted and molecular-based approaches is affected by the optimal gastric cancer drug
management. The modern multidisciplinary approach to treating the pathology used worldwide prolongs the
overall patient survival and decreases the rate of recurrence. An understanding of the mechanisms that underlie
therapies will provide new insights into gastric cancer treatment. The improvement in medicine will probably
be associated with a study of tumor biology, followed by a personalized and molecular-based approach development
in anticancer drugs administration. The modern perspective in gastric cancer detection and treatment is
the application of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles affecting the intensity of biological processes in cancer cells can
be used to treat cancers to increase the effectiveness of anti-tumor therapy. Their cytotoxicity involves a wide
range of pathological events. Their targets are the extracellular matrix degradation, epithelial-mesenchymal
transition, tumor angiogenesis, tumor microenvironment modulation. These are accompanied by lipid peroxidation,
apoptosis, and autophagic flux. Preliminary studies on the efficacy of the use of nanoparticles in cultured
gastric cancers open new opportunities for anti-tumor treatment to overcome the toxicity of therapeutic agents
and decrease the rate of resistance to anticancer drugs and therapies.
Keywords: Nanoparticles, molecular mechanism of anticancer action, apoptosis, autophagy, reactive oxygen species, gastric cancer, molecular
typing, resistance to therapy.
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