Background: Nonylphenol (NP), a chemical compound widely used in industry, is the
result of the nonylphenol ethoxylate decomposition and it is known as an estrogen-like compound.
Numerous studies and researches have shown that it has many destructive functions of various organs
such as the brain. This toxicant causes oxidative stress in the cortex and hippocampus cells,
which are two essential regions to preserve memory and learning in the brain.
Methods: This review examines recent findings to better understanding the mechanisms of NP
neurotoxicity. We used Scopus, Google Scholar, and PubMed databases to find articles focused on
the destructive effects of NP on the oxidative stress pathway and its defense mechanisms.
Results: NP has potential human health hazards associated with gestational, peri- and postnatal
exposure. NP can disrupt brain homeostasis in different ways, such as activation of inflammatory
factors in brain especially in hippocampus and cortex, disruption of the cell cycle, changes in neuron,
dendrites and synapses morphology, disruption of extra and intracellular calcium ion balance
and also memory and learning disorders.