Background: Human immunodeficiency virus infection is a recognized risk factor for
premature atherosclerosis in children and adolescents. However, the atherosclerotic process in uninfected
children exposed in utero to the virus and antiretroviral therapy is less clear.
Objective: To determine the potential cardiovascular risk associated to this in utero milieu exposition.
Material and Methods: A total of 115 individuals were studied (77 in the sample group and 38 in
the controls). Eighteen analytical mediators involved in the atherogenic pathways (metabolic dysregulation,
inflammation, and prothrombotic state) were analyzed. The carotid intima-media thickness,
which is a subclinical marker of atherosclerosis, was also measured.
Results: No significant statistical differences were identified between the sample and control
groups, either in the biochemical or the echographic markers.
Conclusion: In utero exposure to the HIV virus and antiretroviral therapy in uninfected children
and adolescents is not correlated to accelerated atherosclerosis.