Background: Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most frequent cancer worldwide
with a low overall survival due to high metastasis and recurrence rates. The aim of this study
is to assess and compare the possible anti-neoplastic effect of capsaicin and nanoformulated capsaicin
on in vitro HCC human cell line HepG2. The source of the cell line, including when and
from where it was obtained. Whether the cell line has recently been authenticated and by what
method. Whether the cell line has recently been tested for mycoplasma contamination.
Materials and Methods: Capsaicin-loaded Trimethyl Chitosan Nanoparticles (CL TMCS NPs)
were synthesized by ionotropic gelation of cationic TMCS with capsaicin. The synthesized nanoparticles
were characterized through TEM, and zeta analyzer. Human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cell
lines were cultured and treated with 50, 75 & 100 μM of Capsaicin (CAP), plain TMCS NPs and
CL-NPs as well as ethanol (control) for 24h and 48h. The induced effects were investigated by
flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry assay for Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase proteins and evaluating
gene expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax, and MDR-1 mRNA by real-time PCR.
Results: Our results demonstrated that capsaicin- loaded NPs had the potential to significantly increase
capsaicin bioactivity compared with the plain capsaicin formulation either in inducing apoptosis
through altering expression of apoptotic regulators or modifying MDR-1 expression.
Conclusions: TMCs nanoparticles investigated in this study may be a good drug delivery vehicle
for capsaicin. Application of capsaicin-loaded NPs in HCC management as an adjunct therapeutic
approach may be a novel strategy to improve the treatment efficacy and resistance of the conventionally