Background: The pathological agent of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel
coronavirus termed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 has
its origin in Wuhan, China, and spread to other provinces of China and subsequently to other countries
resulting in a pandemic worldwide. The virus is extremely contagious and causes pneumonia and respiratory
failure. Since its emergence, researchers around the world are trying to develop vaccines and
find suitable drugs for the treatment of COVID-19.
Objective: To give an overview of the various therapeutic agents for COVID-19 such as vaccines and
drugs that are in preclinical stage or under different stages of clinical trials.
Results: As per World Health Organization (WHO), there are 137 vaccines under development to date,
out of which few vaccines have successfully completed preclinical studies and reached clinical trials.
According to the present scenario, only one coronavirus vaccine (sputnik-V) has been approved by the
Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. Till date, there are no United States Food and Drug Administration
(USFDA) approved drugs to treat COVID-19 patients. However, depending on patient’s
condition, different drugs such as antiviral agents like Remdesivir, antimalarial drugs like Hydroxychloroquine,
antibiotics like Azithromycin and corticosteroids like Dexamethasone are being applied
and some of them have proved to be effective up to a certain extent.
Conclusion: Although several vaccines for COVID-19 are under development and various drugs have
been tried for its treatment, an ideal drug candidate or a vaccine is still lacking. Almost all the big
pharmaceutical companies are associated with one or more research initiatives in order to develop
vaccines and drugs. Many of them are going through clinical stages, expecting a positive outcome by
the end of 2020.