Background: The pathological agent of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a novel coronavirus termed
as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 has its origin in Wuhan, China from
where it spread to other provinces in China and subsequently to other countries resulting in a pandemic worldwide. The
virus is extremely contagious and causes pneumonia and respiratory failure. Since its emergence researchers around the
world are trying to develop vaccines and find suitable drugs for the treatment of COVID-19.
Objective: To give an overview of the various therapeutic agents for COVID-19 such as vaccines and drugs that are in
preclinical stage or under different stages of clinical trial.
Results: As per World Health Organization (WHO) there are 137 vaccines under development till date out of which few
vaccines have successfully completed preclinical studies and reached clinical trial. According to present scenario, to date,
only one coronavirus vaccine (sputnik-V) has been approved by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. Till
date, there are no United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) approved drugs to treat COVID-19 patients.
However depending on patient’s condition, different drugs such as antiviral agents like Remdesivir, antimalarial drugs
like Hydroxychloroquine, antibiotics like Azithromycin and corticosteroids like Dexamethasone are being applied and
some of them have proved to be effective up to certain extent.
Conclusion: Although several vaccines for COVID-19 are under development and various drugs have been tried for its
treatment, an ideal drug candidate or a vaccine is still lacking. Almost all the big pharmaceutical companies are associated
with one or more research initiatives in order to develop vaccines and drugs. Many of them are going through clinical
stages expecting a positive outcome by the end of 2020.