Background: The new public health emergency of COVID-19 caused by a novel Severe
Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which originated in Wuhan, Hubei
province, China in December 2019, evolved into a pandemic in no time and is still in progression.
The novel virus mainly targets the lower respiratory system, leading to viral pneumonia, with other
associated complications of multi organ failure.
Discussion: The bats, in particular Rhinolophus affinis, is a natural host of SARS-CoV-2 and the
virus is considered to have spread to humans through yet controversial intermediate host pangolins.
The incubation period ranges from 2-14 days and mode of person-to-person transmission is primarily
via the direct contact with the infected person or through the droplets generated by the infected
person during coughing or sneezing. The initiation of the infection process by SARS-CoV-2 virus
is the invasion of lung type II alveolar cells via a receptor protein called angiotensin-converting enzyme
2 (ACE2) present on the cell membrane with glycosylated spike (S) viral protein that mediates
host cell invasion. The main diagnostic tools employed are molecular methods based on nucleic
acid detection engaging real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and a new
immunoassays based on antibodies IgM/IgG.
Conclusion: Due to the lack of specific clinically approved anticovid-19 drugs or vaccines that
could be used for its prevention or treatment, the current management approach is essentially supportive
and symptomatic. The precautionary measures like, social distancing, cleaning hands with
soap or sanitizers, using disinfectant solutions to decontaminate the surfaces of things and proper
ventilation, wearing masks and other protective gears to curb transmission. The knowledge regarding
COVID-19 therapies is still evolving and collaborative efforts are being put in to discover
definitive therapies on different themes in the form of vaccines, repurposing drugs, RNA interference,
docking studies, etc.