Background: Epigenetic modification pattern is considered as a characteristic feature in
blood malignancies. Modifications in the DNA methylation modulators are recurrent in lymphoma
and leukemia, so that the distinct methylation pattern defines different types of leukemia. Generally,
the role of epigenetics is less understood, and most investigations are focused on genetic abnormalities
and cytogenic studies to develop novel treatments for patients with hematologic disorders.
Recently, understanding the underlying mechanism of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), especially
epigenetic alterations as a driving force in the development of ALL opens a new era of investigation
for developing promising strategy, beyond available conventional therapy.
Objective: This review will focus on a better understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms in cancer
development and progression, with an emphasis on epigenetic alterations in ALL including, DNA
methylation, histone modification, and microRNA alterations. Other topics that will be discussed
include the use of epigenetic alterations as a promising therapeutic target in order to develop novel,
well-suited approaches against ALL.
Conclusion: According to the literature review, leukemogenesis of ALL is extensively influenced
by epigenetic modifications, particularly DNA hyper-methylation, histone modification, and miRNA