Nuclear Factor-κappa B (NF-κB) is a family of critical transcription factors of
the inflammatory pathway and plays an imperative role in the progression of various cancers
such as breast, lung, liver, pancreatic, prostate and multiple types of lymphoma. NF-
κB develops an inherent relationship between inflammation and cancer. It is a crucial factor
that controls the ability of malignant and pre-neoplastic cells to prevent programmed
cell death-based tumor-surveillance channels. Due to its high significance in the onset
and progression of various cancers, it has become an excellent target for cancer therapy.
The emerging targeted therapies provide a lot of hope, whereby a single protein or generally
the target enzyme is completely blocked. Several natural compounds have shown anticancer
and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway in various cancer
types. About 750 natural and synthetic inhibitors of the NF-κB have been reported.
These inhibitors include microbial and viral proteins, small RNA/DNA, antioxidants,
small molecules, peptides, and engineered constitutively active polypeptides, all of
which may inhibit canonical and alternative NF-κB pathways. Thus, blocking or targeting
the NF-κB-signaling pathways using natural and synthetic compounds could be a potential
mechanism to cure the NF-κB induced tumors.