Background: It is estimated that the average time between the diagnosis of
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and the patient’s death is 5-9 years. Therefore, both the initial
phase of the disease and the preclinical state can be included in the critical period in disease
diagnosis. Accordingly, huge progress has recently been observed in biomarker research
to identify risk factors for dementia in older people with normal cognitive functions
and mild cognitive impairments.
Methods: Electrochemical biosensors are excellent analytical tools that are used in the detection
of AD biomarkers as they are easy to use, portable, and can do analysis in real
Results: This review presents the analytical techniques currently used to determine AD
biomarkers in terms of their advantages and disadvantages; the most important clinical
biomarkers of AD and their role in the disease. All recently used biorecognition
molecules in electrochemical biosensor development, i.e., receptor protein, antibodies, aptamers
and nucleic acids, are summarized for the first time. Novel electrochemical biosensors
for AD biomarker detection, as ideal analytical platforms for point-of-care diagnostics,
are also reviewed.
Conclusion: The article focuses on various strategies of biosensor chemical surface
modifications to immobilize biorecognition molecules, enabling specific, quantitative
AD biomarker detection in synthetic and clinical samples. In addition, this is the first review
that presents innovative single-platform systems for simultaneous detection of multiple
biomarkers and other important AD-associated biological species based on electrochemical
techniques. The importance of these platforms in disease diagnosis is discussed.