Peripheral nerve injury could lead to either impairment or a complete loss of function for affected patients, and a
variety of nerve repair materials have been developed for surgical approaches to repair it. Although autologous or allologous
tissue-derived biomaterials remain preferred treatment for peripheral nerve injury, the lack of donor sources has led biomedical researchers to explore more other biomaterials. As a reliable alternative, xenogeneic decellularized extracellular matrix
(dECM)-based biomaterials have been widely employed for surgical nerve repair. The dECM derived from animal donors is
an attractive and unlimited source for xenotransplantation. Meanwhile, as an increasingly popular technique, decellularization could retain a variety of bioactive components in native ECM, such as polysaccharides, proteins, and growth factors.
The resulting dECM-based biomaterials preserve a tissue's native microenvironment, promote Schwann cells proliferation
and differentiation, and provide cues for nerve regeneration. Although the potential of dECM-based biomaterials as a therapeutic agent is rising, there are many limitations of this material restricting its use. Herein, this review discusses the decellularization techniques that have been applied to create dECM-based biomaterials, the main components of nerve ECM, and
the recent progress in the utilization of xenogeneic dECM-based biomaterials through applications as a hydrogel, wrap, and
guidance conduit in nerve tissue engineering. In the end, the existing bottlenecks of xenogeneic dECM-based biomaterials
and developing technologies that could be eliminated to be helpful for utilization in the future have been elaborated.