The Emerging Roles of Extracellular Vesicles in Ovarian Cancer

Author(s): Yin-Xue Wang, Yi-Xiang Wang, Yi-Ke Li, Shi-Yan Tu, Yi-Qing Wang*

Journal Name: Current Drug Metabolism

Volume 22 , Issue 2 , 2021


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Abstract:

Ovarian cancer (OC) is one of the deadliest gynecological malignancy. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is its most common form. OC has both, a poor prognosis and a high mortality rate due to the difficulties of early diagnosis, limitation of current treatment and resistance to chemotherapy. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) is a heterogeneous group of cell-derived submicron vesicles, which can be detected in body fluids, and it can be classified into three main types including exosomes, micro-vesicles, and apoptotic bodies.

Cancer cells can produce more EVs than healthy cells. Moreover, the contents of these EVs have been found distinctive from each other. It has been considered that EVs shedding from tumor cells may be implicated in clinical applications, such as a tool for tumor diagnosis, prognosis and potential treatment of certain cancers.

In this review, we provide a brief description of EVs. in diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and drug-resistantance of OC. Cancer-related EVs show powerful influences on tumors by various biological mechanisms. However, the contents mentioned above remain in the laboratory stage and there is a lack of large-scale clinical trials, and the maturity of the purification and detection methods is a constraint. In addition, amplification of oncogenes on ecDNA is remarkably prevalent in cancer. It may be possible that ecDNA can be encapsulated in EVs and thus detected by us. In summary, much more research on EVs needs to be performed to reveal breakthroughs in OC and to accelerate the process of its application in clinic.

Keywords: EVs, Exosomes, microRNAs, Ovarian cancer, Diagnosis, Drug resistance, Prognosis, Therapy.

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VOLUME: 22
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Year: 2021
Published on: 10 November, 2020
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DOI: 10.2174/1389200221666201110155721
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