Background: A novel coronavirus disease, 2019-nCoV (COVID-19), was reported first
in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei, China, in late December 2019 and subsequently reached pandemic
level affecting around 213 countries. As of 24th May 2020, the total number of positive cases confirmed
is 5,446,514 and 344,754 death reports worldwide. COVID-19 infection causes pneumonialike
severe respiratory infection and acute lung failure. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus
2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA beta coronavirus that is a confirmed
causative agent of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 may use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2
(ACE2), unlike the receptor utilized by SARS-CoV (emerged in 2002) to infect humans. People
with a history of hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, cardiovascular disease
are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2.
Objective: The purpose of this review was to help the society to distinguish and deal with SARSCoV-
2, and make available a reference for forthcoming studies.
Methods: Recently, diagnostic primer sets on the SARS-CoV-2 genome have been identified. The
receptor-binding domain of SARS-COV-2 highlighted the mode by which beta-CoV recognizes
ACE2. Various diagnostic tools are available to differentiate and identify SARS-CoV-2 infection
as RT-PCR, antigen detection assay, and antibody detection assay. Different strategies have been
employed to control the SARS-CoV-2, considering various drug targets like the main protease (3-
CLPro), papain-like protease (PLpro), helicase (NSP13), RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp),
and viral envelope (E) protein.
Conclusion: In the present review, we have updated details of transmission, pathogenesis, genome
structure, diagnostic criteria, clinical characteristics, therapeutics, and vaccine development of the
SARS-CoV-2 infection, which may be significant in the control and response to the COVID-19 outbreak.