Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Current Update: Perspective on Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Drug Targets and Vaccines

Author(s): Sunil L. Harer*, Priyanka A. Sonar

Journal Name: Coronaviruses
The World's First International Journal Dedicated to Coronaviruses

Volume 2 , Issue 6 , 2021


Article ID: e020621187754
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Abstract:

Background: A novel coronavirus disease, 2019-nCoV (COVID-19), was reported first in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei, China, in late December 2019 and subsequently reached pandemic level affecting around 213 countries. As of 24th May 2020, the total number of positive cases confirmed is 5,446,514 and 344,754 death reports worldwide. COVID-19 infection causes pneumonialike severe respiratory infection and acute lung failure. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA beta coronavirus that is a confirmed causative agent of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 may use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), unlike the receptor utilized by SARS-CoV (emerged in 2002) to infect humans. People with a history of hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, cardiovascular disease are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2.

Objective: The purpose of this review was to help the society to distinguish and deal with SARSCoV- 2, and make available a reference for forthcoming studies.

Methods: Recently, diagnostic primer sets on the SARS-CoV-2 genome have been identified. The receptor-binding domain of SARS-COV-2 highlighted the mode by which beta-CoV recognizes ACE2. Various diagnostic tools are available to differentiate and identify SARS-CoV-2 infection as RT-PCR, antigen detection assay, and antibody detection assay. Different strategies have been employed to control the SARS-CoV-2, considering various drug targets like the main protease (3- CLPro), papain-like protease (PLpro), helicase (NSP13), RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and viral envelope (E) protein.

Conclusion: In the present review, we have updated details of transmission, pathogenesis, genome structure, diagnostic criteria, clinical characteristics, therapeutics, and vaccine development of the SARS-CoV-2 infection, which may be significant in the control and response to the COVID-19 outbreak.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, 2019-nCoV, coronavirus, genome structure, enzyme targets, vaccines, hmAb.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 2
ISSUE: 6
Year: 2021
Published on: 09 November, 2020
Article ID: e020621187754
Pages: 23
DOI: 10.2174/2666796701999201109213553

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