Background: Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), due to their impressive benefits,
have recently been considered in different areas. Besides, NLC loaded with essential
oils is attractive for finding more effective antimicrobial products, especially against common
bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis).
Objective: This study aims to prepare and characterize NLCs encapsulated with Punica
granatum (P. granatum) seed oil (PGS oil-loaded NLCs) and examine the antimicrobial effect
of this combination against S. epidermidis.
Methods: PGS oil-loaded NLCs were prepared using a hot melt homogenization method.
Later, they were characterized by determining particle size distribution (particle size analyzer),
morphology (scanning electron microscopy (SEM)), and zeta potential (surface
charge of NLCs). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of PGS oil-loaded NLCs were
assessed and compared with seed oil emulsion of P. granatum against S. epidermidis.
Results: PGS oil-loaded NLCs were spherical shaped nanoparticles, with a mean size of
102.10 nm and narrow size distribution (PDI = 0.26). The antibacterial assay showed PGS
oil-loaded NLCs to have a higher in vitro antimicrobial activity than seed oil emulsion of
Conclusion: To conclude, NLCs may be a favorable carrier to develop new antimicrobial
Lay Summary: The lipid nanoparticles such as nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) appeared
as products first on the cosmetic market. Their advantages help them to be used in
different healthcare and cosmetic products. With regard to previous studies, Punica granatum
(P. granatum) extract shows antimicrobial and antioxidant properties that could be a
valuable natural source against the wide ranges of bacteria. Then, P. granatum seed oil
(PGS oil-loaded NLCs) prepared in this study can be used in dental and skin-related materials
as a new natural antimicrobial product.