Internet of Things is considered a promising and challenging system that needs modern
types of protocols and architectures different from conventional networks. This paper aims to provide
an inclusive, concise, plain, and precise insight of IoT foundations for the novice and to introduce
guidelines for application developers and researchers to be capable of choosing quickly the right protocol
at different structural IoT layers and correct hardware/software platform for various applications.
The contributions of this review provide the classification for the most widespread suggested IoT architectures.
Besides, it summarizes the basic IoT components with their roll into multi-layered architecture.
Furthermore, it presents the classification of layers basis for prevalent protocols with the comparison
among different protocols at each layer in the IoT domain. Subsequently, IoT applications
taxonomy is introduced and the most relevant use-cases are compared. Likewise, at the respective 4-
Layer architecture of IoT, the security issues and policies are discussed concisely. Besides, the potential
attacks and their countermeasures are tabularized and some of the research challenges with their
solutions are identified. Lastly, to ensure that the conducted review is different, the comparison with
other relevant reviews and surveys which came out from the last three years is made.
Keywords: Internet of things, IoT, layered architecture, research challenges, protocols, loT applications, IoT security, application
layer protocols, threat, attacks, hardware platform, sensors.
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