The Role of microRNAs in the Development of Type 2 Diabetes Complications

Author(s): Stavroula A. Paschou*, Gerasimos Siasos, Niki Katsiki, Nikolaos Tentolouris, Dimitrios Tousoulis

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 26 , Issue 46 , 2020


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Abstract:

MicroRNAs represent a class of small (19-25 nucleotides) single-strand pieces of RNA that are noncoding ones. They are synthesized by RNA polymerase II from transcripts that fold back on themselves. They mostly act as gene regulatory agents that pair with complementary sequences on mRNA and produce silencing complexes, which, in turn, suppress coding genes at a post-transcriptional level. There is now evidence that microRNAs may affect insulin secretion or insulin action, as they can alter pancreatic beta cells development, insulin production, as well as insulin signaling. Any molecular disorder that affects these pathways can deteriorate insulin resistance and lead to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) onset. Furthermore, the expression of several microRNAs is up- or down-regulated in the presence of diabetic microvascular complications (i.e., peripheral neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, foot ulcers), as well as in patients with coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease. However, more evidence is needed, specifically regarding T2DM patients, to establish the use of such microRNAs as diagnostical biomarkers or therapeutic targets in daily practice.

Keywords: Diabetes, type 2, microRNAs, insulin, RNA, complications.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 26
ISSUE: 46
Year: 2020
Published on: 01 November, 2020
Page: [5969 - 5979]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666201102102233
Price: $65

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