Background: Neuroblastoma (NBM) is the second leading pediatric cancer that develops from the precursors of
the sympathetic nervous system. To date, surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation serve as the first line treatment against NBM
in high-risk patients. However, few of these approaches have severe side effects. Recently, numerous studies have also reported that high chemotherapy doses, along with stem cell rescue, improvise event-free survival in patients.
Objectives: In this review, the authors attempted to discuss the pathogenesis associated with NBM and how stem cell therapy can be employed for the treatment of NBM.
Conclusions: Stem cells are a group of multipotent undifferentiated cells that are capable of producing all cells in a particular tissue, organ, or organism. They have an endogenous self-renewal property. This property is tightly modulated for the
normal homeostasis within the body. However, the failure of this process leads to carcinogenesis, including NBM. As these
properties are modulated via various intrinsic as well as extrinsic pathways, the arrest of these pathways via various drugs
may help in controlling various carcinomas, including NBM. Recently, stem cells used diagnosis and therapy is widely for
the NBM treatments. Nevertheless, most of the studies conducted to date are mainly designed on bulk-cell analysis, which in
turn provides little information about the population of cells. Thus, the authors believe that, by employing single-cell RNA
sequencing technologies and computational approaches, we can unmask the tumor heterogeneity in NBM in a more comprehensive way. In the near future, this information will be highly useful for the identification of biomarkers and treatment
associated with NBM in humans.