American Cancer Society estimates that about 1 in 21 men and 1 in 23 women in US will develop colorectal
cancer during their lifetime. Due to the advances in screening and treatment modalities, the mortality rate has reduced.
Rising resistance to treatment have directed the focus towards different approaches as combination therapies involving
different treatment techniques available. One such approach is chemo-immunotherapy that targets to modulate TIME and
improve the response to immunotherapy. The chemo-immunotherapy has shown a positive impact in improving the outcome
of CRC treatment. The ensemble of results discussed herein supports the role of biomarkers in determining the most effective
treatment algorithm. A comprehensive knowledge about the off-target effects of the cytotoxic drugs helps in designing
more efficacious combined treatment. The time-window for optimal combination must also be considered carefully.
Keywords: Combination therapy, colorectal cancer, chemo-immunotherapy, biomarkers, CRC treatment, cytotoxic drugs
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