Background: Chitosan nanoparticles have been extensively studied and used due to
their well-recognized applicability in various fields. Chitosan, a natural polysaccharide polymer, is
extensively used in pharmaceuticals to deliver a wide variety of therapeutic agents. Chitosan is a
biocompatible and biodegradable mucoadhesive polymer that has been extensively used in the preparation
of multi particles, particularly nano- and microparticles.
Objective: The main aim of the present study was to optimize the conditions for the preparation of
chitosan nanoparticles to get optimal particle size, with optimal zeta potential and narrow polydispersity
index and anti-bacterial activity.
Methods: Include the ionic gelation technique for chitosan nanoparticle preparation. The influence
of formulation parameters and process parameters on the chitosan nanoparticles were investigated.
Besides, the suspension stability of the prepared nanoparticles was also assessed on storage at 4°C.
Results: The formulation and process parameters showed a significant effect on the physicochemical
and morphological characteristics of the chitosan nanoparticles. The chitosan nanoparticles prepared
under optimum conditions (chitosan concentration of 0.5% w/v, CS: TPP mass ratio of 1:3,
initial pH of chitosan solution of 4.5, stirred at 750 rpm for 30 min) had shown a mean particle size
of ~326.8±15 nm, zeta potential of +28.2 ± 0.5 mV, and PDI of 0.21 ± 0.02. The encapsulation of
the clarithromycin slightly increased the polydispersity index, but the zeta potential of the unloaded
nanoparticles was not affected while the particle size increased. Under optimum conditions,
clarithromycin encapsulation efficiency into nanoparticles was found to be 70%. Additionally, chitosan-
tripolyphosphate nanoparticles were shown to be stable for a minimum of fifteen days in
deionized water at 4°C.
Conclusion: The current study concludes the optimal conditions to formulate the chitosan nanoparticles
with optimal physicochemical characteristics.