Background: Cell-based therapies represent one of the definitive treatment approaches
to SCI which, to become a routine clinical application, is marred by several known unknowns. The
Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells (BMMNCs) and Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) represent the
most clinically applied cell types for SCI in humans, with safety established, and to an extent, efficacy
Methods: In this review, we have analysed the clinical studies performed using BMMNC and
MSC for complete SCI separately, and the potential for applying those cells in combination. We
have also analysed those factors whose outcome in animal studies of SCI could be evaluated in
depth but the clinical outcome cannot be evaluated intrinsically owing to practical difficulties.
Conclusion: A combination of these two cell types, BMMNC and MSC, has been proven to be advantageous
than applying them separately. Therefore, a thorough evaluation including the rationale
and potential implications of applying these two therapies has been presented here, and we hypothesize
that such a combination is likely to improvise the outcome of a wholesome approach to spinal
cord regeneration after SCI.