COVID-19 and Autoimmune Diseases: A Systematic Review of Reported Cases

Author(s): Mariam Ahmed Saad, Mostafa Alfishawy*, Mahmoud Nassar, Mahmoud Mohamed, Ignatius N. Esene, Amira Elbendary

Journal Name: Current Rheumatology Reviews

Volume 17 , Issue 2 , 2021


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Abstract:

Introduction: Over 4.9 million cases of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been confirmed since the worldwide pandemic began. Since the emergence of COVID-19, a number of confirmed cases reported autoimmune manifestations. Herein, we reviewed the reported COVID-19 cases with associated autoimmune manifestations.

Methods: We searched PubMed database using all available keywords for COVID-19. All related studies between January 1st, 2020 to May 22nd, 2020 were reviewed. Only studies published in English language were considered. Articles were screened based on titles and abstracts. All reports of confirmed COVID-19 patients who have associated clinical evidence of autoimmune disease were selected.

Results: Among the 10006 articles, searches yielded thirty-two relevant articles for full-text assessment. Twenty studies has met the eligibility criteria. The twenty eligible articles reported 33 cases of confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis who developed an autoimmune disease after the onset of covid-19 symptoms. Ages of patients varied from a 6 months old infant to 89 years old female (Mean=53.9 years of 28 cases); five cases had no information regarding their age. The time between symptoms of viral illness and onset of autoimmune symptoms ranged from 2 days to 33 days (Mean of the 33 cases=9.8 days). Autoimmune diseases were one case of subacute thyroiditis (3%), two cases of Kawasaki Disease (6.1%), three cases of coagulopathy and antiphospholipid syndrome (9.1%), three cases of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (9.1%), eight cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (24.2%), and sixteen cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome (48.5%).

Conclusion: COVID-19 has been implicated in the development of a range of autoimmune diseases, which may shed light on the association between autoimmune diseases and infections.

Keywords: Antiphospholipid syndrome, autoimmune disease, covid-19, Guillain-Barré syndrome, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, Kawasaki Disease, SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, Wuhan coronavirus 2020.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 17
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2021
Published on: 29 October, 2020
Page: [193 - 204]
Pages: 12
DOI: 10.2174/1573397116666201029155856
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