Evaluation of Toxicity and Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Spondias Mombin l. Leaves Methanolic Extract in Laboratory Rats

Author(s): Mayur Porwal*, Sandeep K. Gautam, Najam A. Khan, Kamal K. Maheshwari

Journal Name: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders-Drug Targets
Formerly Current Drug Targets - Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders

Volume 20 , Issue 4 , 2020


Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Aims: To study the toxicological profile and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of Spondias mombin leaves methanolic extract in experimental rats.

Background: Preventing high levels of lipids or its recurrence is currently one of the key aims of clinical and experimental studies.

Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the toxicological profile and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of methanolic extract of leaves of Spondias mombin.

Methods: The acute toxicity study was carried out where the limited dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight was administered to five rats at 48 h intervals. The interpretation was prepared and recorded for 24 h. In the sub-acute toxicity study, rats were treated with 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg doses of the extract every 24 h for 28 days. The hematological, biochemical, and histopathological tests of treated animals were carried out at the end of the test. The anti-hyperlipidemic activity of plant extract (100, 200 mg/kg) was studied on Triton-X-100 induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Histopathological changes in the liver of rats were examined.

Results: For acute and subacute treatment, the extract did not reveal any signs of toxicity or mortality, or any significant effects on hematological, biochemical parameters, and histopathology of organs. The extract demonstrated an important anti-hyperlipidemic result by decreasing the serum levels of cholesterol, TGs, LDL, VLDL, and enhancing HDL.

Conclusion: Taking up the evidence of the experimental study, we can conclude that the methanolic extract of Spondias mombin leaves helps in declining hyperlipidemia in rats and it can be safely used for a period of 28 days to treat hyperlipidemia.

Keywords: Acute toxicity, spondias mombin, subacute toxicity, triton-x-100, hyperlipidemia, VLDL.

[1]
Mamun-or- Rashid. A.N.M.; Shamim, H. M.; Hassan, N.; Biplab, D.K.; Sapon, A.M.; Sen, K. M. A review on medicinal plants with antidiabetic activity. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem., 2014, 3, 149-159.
[2]
Martins, E. The growing use of herbal medicines: Issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety. Front. Pharmacol., 2013, 4, 177-182.
[3]
Ghule, B.V.; Ghante, M.H.; Saoji, A.N.; Yeole, P.G. Hypolipidemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) fruit extracts. Indian J. Exp. Biol., 2006, 44(11), 905-909.
[PMID: 17205712]
[4]
Barbara, C.; Siqueira, M.S.E.; Bitencourt, A.O.M. Phytochemical study and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of Spondias mombin leaves. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn., 2016, 26, 304-311.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2016.02.002]
[5]
Fred-Jaiyesimia, A. Kio. A.;Wilkins, R. α-Amylase inhibitory effect of 3β-olean-12-en-3-yl (9 Z)-hexadec-9-enoate isolated from Spondias mombin leaf. Food Chem., 2006, 116, 285-288.
[6]
Moronkola, O.D.; Adeleke, K.A.; Ekundayo, O. Constituents of the Spondias mombin Linn and the Comparison between its Fruit and Leaf essential oils. J. Essent. Oil Bear Pl., 2003, 3, 148-152.
[7]
Adegoke, A.A.; Aiyegoro, O.A.; Stenstrom, T.A. Effect of interaction of methanol leaf extract of Spondias mombin (Linn) and amoxicillin on some diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Trop. J. Pharm. Res., 2016, 15, 475-480.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v15i3.7]
[8]
Ajaegbu, E.E.; Danga, S.P.; Chijoke, I.U.; Okoye, F.B. Mosquito adulticidal activity of the leaf extracts of Spondias mombin L. against Aedes aegypti L. and isolation of active principles. J. Vector Borne Dis., 2016, 53(1), 17-22.
[PMID: 27004574]
[9]
Bolatito, S.O.; Olugbenga, O.O.; Mobolaji, O.A.; Adeniran, O.S.A.; Inyang, S.A. Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of Spondias mombin, Senna occidentalis and Musa sapientum against Vibrio cholerae O1. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci., 2014, 3, 948-961.
[10]
Olugbuyiro, J.A.O.; Moody, J.O.; Hamann, M.T. AntiMtb activity of triterpenoid-rich fractions from Spondias mombin L. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 2009, 8, 1807-1809.
[11]
Nworu, C.S.; Akah, P.A.; Okoye, F.B.; Toukam, D.K.; Udeh, J.; Esimone, C.O. The leaf extract of Spondias mombin L. displays an anti-inflammatory effect and suppresses inducible formation of tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide (NO). J. Immunotoxicol., 2011, 8(1), 10-16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/1547691X.2010.531406] [PMID: 21261441]
[12]
Igwe, C.U.; Onwuliri, V.A.; Onyeze, G.O.C.; Osuagwu, C.G. Spasmogenic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Spondias mombin Linn on isolated uterine muscle strips of rats: Possible hormonal mechanism of action. Res. J. Agric. Biol. Sci., 2011, 7, 228-233.
[13]
Silva, F.V.G. Silva, S.M.; Silva, G.C.; Mendonça, R.M.N.; Alves, R.E.; Dantas, A.L. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in fruits of clone and ungrafted genotypes of yellow mombin tree. Food Sci. Technol., 2012, 32, 685-691.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612012005000101]
[14]
OECD. OECD (1995) Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development Guidelines for the testing of chemicals repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity testing 425., 1995.
[15]
OECD. OECD (2008) Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.Guidance document on subacute oral toxicity testing 407: Paris., 2008.
[16]
WHO. WHO (2000) World Health Organization. General guidelines for methodologies on research and evaluation of traditional medicine.Geneva: 35., 2000.
[17]
Narhari, D.; Durajan, G.; Sharif, H.M.; Sheikh, R.Z. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity induced by methanol extract of Terminalia citrina leaves in Sprague Dawley rats. J. Acute Dis., 2015, 4, 316-321.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joad.2015.05.001]
[18]
Rohit, G.; Kim, H.K.; Rajeev, S.K.; Ravi, V.C. Mulapalli Sartaj, V. Pharmacognosy Res., 2014, 6, 267-273.
[19]
Friedewald, W.T.; Levy, R.I.; Fredrickson, D.S. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin. Chem., 1972, 18(6), 499-502.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/clinchem/18.6.499] [PMID: 4337382]
[20]
Bigoniya, P.; Sahu, T.; Tiwari, V. Hematological and biochemical effects of sub-chronic artesunate exposure in rats. Toxicol. Rep., 2015, 2, 280-288.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2015.01.007] [PMID: 28962361]
[21]
Fennell, C.W.; Lindsey, K.L.; McGaw, L.J.; Sparg, S.G.; Stafford, G.I.; Elgorashi, E.E.; Grace, O.M.; van Staden, J. Assessing African medicinal plants for efficacy and safety: Pharmacological screening and toxicology. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2004, 94(2-3), 205-217.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2004.05.012] [PMID: 15325724]
[22]
Tahraoui, A.; Israili, Z.H.; Lyoussi, B. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity of a lyophilised aqueous extract of Centaurium erythraea in rodents. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2010, 132(1), 48-55.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.07.038] [PMID: 20800671]
[23]
Konan, N.A.; Bacchi, E.M.; Lincopan, N.; Varela, S.D.; Varanda, E.A. Acute, subacute toxicity and genotoxic effect of a hydroethanolic extract of the cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.). J. Ethnopharmacol., 2007, 110(1), 30-38.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2006.08.033] [PMID: 17088034]
[24]
Hilaly, J.; Israili, H.; Lyoussi, B. Acute and chronic toxicological studies of Ajuga iva in experimental animals. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2004, 91, 43-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2003.11.009] [PMID: 15036466]
[25]
Rhiouani, H.; El-Hilaly, J.; Israili, Z.H.; Lyoussi, B. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Herniaria glabra in rodents. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2008, 118(3), 378-386.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2008.05.009] [PMID: 18597959]
[26]
Odeyemi, O.O.; Yakubu, M.T.; Masika, P.J.; Afolayan, A.J. Toxicological evaluation of the essential oil from Mentha longifolia L. subsp. capensis leaves in rats. J. Med. Food, 2009, 12(3), 669-674.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2008.0136] [PMID: 19627219]
[27]
Saravana, K.; Mazumder, A.; Saravanan, V.S. Antihyperlipidemic activity of Camellia sinensis leaves in Triton WR-1339 induced albino rats. Pharmacogn. Mag., 2008, 4, 60-64.
[28]
Sikarwar, S. Mukesh, Patil, M.B. Antihyperlipidemic activity of Salacia chinensis root extracts in triton-induced and atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Int. J. Pharmacol., 2012, 44, 88-92.
[29]
Kapourchali, F.R. Surendiran, G.; Chen, L.; Uitz, E.; Bahadori, B.; Moghadasian, M.H. Animal models of atherosclerosis. World J. Clin. Cases, 2014, 2(5), 126-132.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v2.i5.126] [PMID: 24868511]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 20
ISSUE: 4
Year: 2020
Page: [289 - 296]
Pages: 8
DOI: 10.2174/1871529X20999201027232556
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 119
HTML: 1