Bioactive Phytochemicals: Drug Discovery to Product Development

Bioactive Phytochemicals: Drug Discovery to Product Development

Natural bioactive compounds from medicinal plants are inexplicably diverse in chemical structure and biological properties. The unmet therapeutic requirements for various diseases serve as a guide ...
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Pharmacological Evaluation of Herbal Medicine

Pp. 100-120 (21)

Subasini Uthirapathy, Javed Ahamad, Jaswanth Albert and Govind Prasad Dubey

Abstract

Natural products broadly incorporate plant-based product as well as marine, plants, microorganisms and minerals. There are several animal products that are also consumed by humans as a food health supplement and also medicine. Herbal products have a variety of phytocompounds. . The identification of these molecules is essential for standardization and quality control of the herbal products. The world wide variety of plants and their species have been identified and i.e. 250000. Morphological and chemical constituents of plant species vary from one ethnic group to another. Humidity, temperature and altitude soil conditions are all responsible for both structural and functional characteristics of the natural products. Therefore standardization and quality control are the big challenges before using natural products. Heavy metal toxicity, microbial load and aflotoxin are the major and important parameters of evaluation of the safety profile of the natural products. Therefore, before using the natural product, we should characterized the structural variation to establish structural and functional relationships. In the present paper, some of the experimental models have been described, which will be useful in the preparation of standard plant based products.In order to provide standard product, some important experimental methods have been described in this paper. Herbal medicinal products have a wide scope of assorted variety of multidimensional synthetic structures; in the ongoing occasions, the utility of normal items as natural capacity modifiers has impressive consideration. The botanical study evaluated the identification of 250,000 to 350,000 plant species over the planet. Notwithstanding, only around 35,000 species have been utilized in various networks of the world for the treatment of different infirmities. Nonetheless, this exceptional fortune needs exhaustive consideration as far as biological and pharmacological screening to serve humankind against different diseases. The traditional system of treatment, varying in idea and convention, represents well-created frameworks, for example, Allopathic, Homeopathic, Ayurvedic and Chinese system of treatment. A large portion of the enlightened countries has built up their own Materia Medica, assembling insights concerning different plants utilized for remedial purposes. This chapteris focused on the diverse pharmacological screening techniques with point by point illustration of genuine biological investigations that are useful to discover new bioactive phytochemicals in antidiabetic, analgesic,antiinflammatory, neuroprotective, anti-obesity, and depression disorders and so on. Preclinical study is strictly required to follow CPCSEA guideline into the pharmacological practical.This chapter provides essential knowledge of practical features of the experimental Screening pharmacology right from laboratory animal handling, the important techniques and methodology used in experimental pharmacology. The experimental procedure described in this chapter is planned on the basis of strong technical materials and personal knowledge in hands-on experiments under the guidance of renowned personalities. This chapter is arranged to understand the experimental animal handling techniques by witnessing the induction experiments. These experimental procedures will be helpful for graduates and postgraduates students associated with pharmacology, toxicology and researcher. Simple and newer animal models have been combined, which may help the students to occupy in new drug development activities. Also, some important points have been conferred e.g. ethics of animal experimentation, blood collection techniques, euthanasia, animal care and handling.

Keywords:

Anti-inflammatory Activity, Antidiabetic Activity, Anti-Obesity, Bio-Logical Approach, Drug Discovery, Herbal Medicinal Products, Neuropharmacology, Pharmacological Evaluation.

Affiliation:

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tishk International University, KRG, Iraq.