Background: Angiogenesis, involving the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vessels,
caters an important biological phenomenon for the growth and development of bodily structures in the human
body. Regulation of angiogenesis in non-pathological conditions takes place through a well-defined balanced
angiogenic-switch, which upon exposure to various pathological conditions may get altered. This makes the
cells change their normal behavior resulting in uncontrolled division and angiogenesis.
Methods: The current review tries to present a brief framework of angiogenesis and tumor progression phenomenon
along with the latest therapeutic interventions against VEGFR-2 and its future directions.
Results: The tumor angiogenic pathways functioning in diverse mechanisms via sprouting angiogenesis, intussusceptive
angiogenesis, vascular co-option, vascular mimicry, and glomeruloid angiogenesis are normally activated
by varied angiogenic stimulators and their receptors are interrelated to give rise to specialized signaling
pathways. Amongst these receptors, VEGFR-2 is found as one of the key, critical mediators in tumor angiogenesis
and is seen as a major therapeutic target for combating angiogenesis. Though a number of anti-angiogenic
drugs like Ramucirumab, Sunitinib, Axitinib, Sorafenib, etc. showing good survival rates have been developed
and approved by FDA against VEGFR-2, but these have also been found to be associated with serious health effects
and adverse reactions.
Conclusion: An improved or alternative treatment is needed shortly that has a higher survival rate with the
least side effects. Innovative strategies, including personalized medicine, nano-medicine, and cancer immunotherapy
have also been outlined as an alternative treatment with a discussion on advancements and improvements
required for their implementation methods.