Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most prevalent and severe neurodegenerative disease
affecting more than 6.1 million people globally. It is characterized by age-related progressive deterioration
of neurological functions caused by neuronal damage or neuronal death. During PD, the dopamineproducing
cells in the substantia nigra region of the brain degenerate, which leads to symptoms like
resting tremors and rigidity. Treatment of PD is very challenging due to the blood-brain barrier, which
restricts the drug from reaching the brain. Conventional drug delivery systems possess a limited capacity
to cross the blood barrier, leading to low bioavailability and high toxicity (due to off-site drug release).
Therefore, it becomes necessary to accelerate the development of novel drug delivery systems, including
nanoparticles, microemulsions, matrix systems, solid dispersions, liposomes, and solid lipid nanoparticles
for the treatment of PD. Exosomes are biological lipid bilayer membrane vesicles produced by
nearly all mammalian cells. The characteristics of vesicles are unique to their cell of origin and are primarily
involved in intracellular communication. Exosomes, due to their nanoscale size, could easily
permeate across the central nervous system, which makes them ideal for targeting the neurons in the
substantia nigra. Exosomes could be efficient drug carrier systems for brain targeting, which can
increase the efficacy of the drug and minimize the side effects. The review aims at providing a broad
updated view of exosomes and their application in the treatment of PD.