Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a heterogenous chronic disorder causing hypoxemia,
excessive daytime sleepiness, non-refreshing sleep, nocturia, morning headache, irritability, and
memory loss. Cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, metabolic disorders, and depression
are its long-term consequences. The difficulty in treating patients is due to poor compliance, failure
to obtain the desired outcome, and complication arising from the multimodality treatment. Direct
targeted therapy may overcome these issues. Identification of its phenotypes improves understanding
of the disease mechanism, the risk for adverse effects, and predicting response to targeted therapy.
Phenotyping of OSA allows treating patients according to their inherent disease and not based
on a “one size fits all” method, which may not be applicable for all patients. This approach may improve
patients’ compliance with treatment, minimize the associated morbidities, and consequently
improve their quality of life.