Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) serves as a modulator for neurotransmitters
by participating in neuronal plasticity, essential for their growth and neuronal survival. It also
shows a wide range of expression patterns in the systemic and peripheral tissues; thereby, its biological
actions are not just limited to the CNS but may a vital role in peripheral disorders, such as Diabetes
Mellitus (DM). Platelets serve as one of the major sources of BDNF, which regulates energy
homeostasis and glucose metabolism by participating in the expression of specific pro-survival
genes. It also prevents β cell exhaustion, thus may prove to be a key factor for the management of
DM. The current article reviews the intricate role of BDNF in Type 2 DM (T2DM) by involving
platelet reactivity and its association with these selected inflammatory platelet activator mediators.
Besides, certain adipocytokines, such as adiponectin and leptin, are also involved in the
metabolism of glucose during diabetes, which has been clearly proven by recent experimental
studies and thus relating BDNF with adipocytokines. It is also involved in the modulation of secretion
of various neurotransmitters, peptides and hormones like gherin, leptin and insulin, suggesting
its association with T2DM. Thus, based on various evidence, BDNF can be categorised as a potential
biomarker in predicting the development of T2DM and may have a distinctive role in the management
of this disorder.