Lung cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related morbidity
and mortality worldwide. As early symptoms of lung cancer are minimal and non-specific, many patients
are diagnosed at an advanced stage. Despite a concerted effort to diagnose lung cancer early, no
biomarkers that can be used for lung cancer screening and prognosis prediction have been established
so far. As global DNA demethylation and gene-specific promoter DNA methylation are present in lung
cancer, DNA methylation biomarkers have become a major area of research as potential alternative diagnostic
methods to detect lung cancer at an early stage. This review summarizes the emerging DNA
methylation changes in lung cancer tumorigenesis, focusing on biomarkers for early detection and
their potential clinical applications in lung cancer.
Keywords: Non-small-cell lung cancer, DNA methylation, biomarker, epigenetic, tumorigenesis, hypomethylation.
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