Premature Adrenarche and its Association with Cardiovascular Risk in Females

Author(s): Sarantis Livadas*, Christina Bothou, Djuro Macut

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 26 , Issue 43 , 2020


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Abstract:

Early activation of the adrenal zona reticularis, leading to adrenal androgen secretion, mainly dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), is called premature adrenarche (PA). The fact that adrenal hyperandrogenism in females has been linked to a cluster of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, even in prepubertal children, warrants investigation. Controversial results have been obtained in this field, probably due to genetic, constitutional, and environmental factors or differences in the characteristics of participants. In an attempt to understand, in depth, the impact of PA as a potential activator of CV risk, we critically present available data stratified according to pubertal status. It seems that prepubertally, CV risk is increased in these girls, but is somewhat attenuated during their second decade of life. Furthermore, different entities associated with PA, such as polycystic ovary syndrome, non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia, heterozygosity of CYP21A2 mutations, and the impact of DHEAS on CV risk, are reviewed. At present, firm and definitive conclusions cannot be drawn. However, it may be speculated that girls with a history of PA display a hyperandrogenic hormonal milieu that may lead to increased CV risk. Accordingly, appropriate long-term follow-up and early intervention employing a patient-oriented approach are recommended.

Keywords: Adrenarche, pubarche, PCOS, insulin, metabolic syndrome, CYP21A2, DHEAS.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 26
ISSUE: 43
Year: 2020
Published on: 22 December, 2020
Page: [5609 - 5616]
Pages: 8
DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666201012164726
Price: $65

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