Background & Objective: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the most important causes of deaths and
disability in the world and diabetes is an important risk factor. To describe mortality and morbidity burden from this twin
epidemic in South Asian countries we performed this review.
Methods: Country level data on epidemiology of IHD and diabetes were obtained from GBD study. Sub-national data
were available only for India. We also retrieved epidemiological studies from published reviews on IHD and diabetes in
India. These were supplemented with MEDLINE search.
Results: GBD study and regional epidemiological studies have reported that there are significant regional variations in
IHD mortality and disease burden within South Asian countries. IHD burden has increased significantly from 2000 to
2017. Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study has reported that diabetes is an important IHD risk factor in South
Asian region. GBD Study and International Diabetes Federation have reported increasing diabetes related mortality and
disease burden in South Asian countries, especially India. There are regional variations in diabetes-related mortality,
disease burden and prevalence in South Asia. At the macrolevel, rapid food and nutrition transition along with increasing
physical inactivity are responsible for this twin epidemic.
Conclusions: Increasing trend in IHD and diabetes related mortality and disease burden with regional variations are
observed in South Asian countries.