Elachi Lemon (Citrus limon) Peel and Pulp: Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Anticoagulant Activities, Bioactive Compounds, Minerals, and Heavy Metals

Author(s): Shahad Saif Khandker, Alamgir Kabir, Md. Jahid Hasan, Md. Shohael Ahmed, Siew Hua Gan, Md. Ibrahim Khalil, Md Asiful Islam*, Tareq Hossan*, Mohammad Amjad Kamal

Journal Name: Current Bioactive Compounds

Volume 17 , Issue 6 , 2021


Article ID: e010621186624
Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: According to a number of previous studies, citrus fruits are rich in phytochemicals, minerals and bioactive compounds.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticoagulant activities, phytonutrients, bioactive compounds, mineral and heavy metals in the peel and pulp of Elachi lemon (Citrus limon).

Methods: Phytochemical screening was performed to estimate the total polyphenol, flavonoid, tannin, reducing sugar, total protein and vitamin C contents. High performance liquid chromatography was performed to determine the concentrations of phenolics and ascorbic acid. Antioxidant activities were evaluated by measuring 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by the disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Besides estimating heavy metals and minerals, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time (PT) were observed for detecting anticoagulant activity.

Results: In the case of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, the pulp was found to be richer. Both the peel and pulp showed similar anticoagulant activities. Among the phytonutrients, protein content was richer in the peel than in the pulp. Catechin, rutin, tannic, gallic and vanillic acids were detected in the peel, whereas in pulp quercetin, tannic and gallic acids were found. Pb, Cr, Cd were present in a negligible amount whereas, Co, Cu and Fe were high in both the peel and the pulp.

Conclusion: This study exhibits that both the peel and the pulp of Citrus limon are a rich source of antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticoagulant, minerals and various bioactive compounds with nutritional values.

Keywords: Citrus limon, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticoagulant, bioactive compounds, minerals.

[1]
Choi JS, Kim JW, Cho HR, et al. Laxative effects of fermented rice extract in rats with loperamide-induced constipation. Exp Ther Med 2014; 8(6): 1847-54.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2014.2030] [PMID: 25371743]
[2]
Kakino M, Tazawa S, Maruyama H, et al. Laxative effects of agarwood on low-fiber diet-induced constipation in rats. BMC Complement Altern Med 2010; 10(1): 68.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-10-68] [PMID: 21078136]
[3]
Lim JM, Song CH, Park SJ, et al. Laxative effects of triple-fermented barley extracts (FBe) in normal rats. Toxicol Environ Health Sci 2018; 10(2): 107-17.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13530-018-0353-5]
[4]
Mostafa SM, Bhandari S, Ritchie G, Gratton N, Wenstone R. Constipation and its implications in the critically ill patient. Br J Anaesth 2003; 91(6): 815-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bja/aeg275] [PMID: 14633751]
[5]
Rao SS. Constipation: evaluation and treatment of colonic and anorectal motility disorders. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2007; 36(3): 687-711, x.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gtc.2007.07.013] [PMID: 17950444]
[6]
Peters HP, De Vries WR, Vanberge-Henegouwen GP, Akkermans LM. Potential benefits and hazards of physical activity and exercise on the gastrointestinal tract. Gut 2001; 48(3): 435-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gut.48.3.435] [PMID: 11171839]
[7]
Talley NJ, Jones M, Nuyts G, Dubois D. Risk factors for chronic constipation based on a general practice sample. Am J Gastroenterol 2003; 98(5): 1107-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1572-0241.2003.07465.x] [PMID: 12809835]
[8]
Ervin CM, Mangel AW. Clinical trials in irritable bowel syndrome: a review. Rev Recent Clin Trials 2013; 8(1): 9-22.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1574887111308010003] [PMID: 23130604]
[9]
Vinik AI, Nevoret ML, Casellini C, Parson H. Diabetic neuropathy. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2013; 42(4): 747-87.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2013.06.001] [PMID: 24286949]
[10]
Cryer B, Drossman DA, Chey WD, Webster L, Habibi S, Wang M. Analysis of nausea in clinical studies of lubiprostone for the treatment of constipation disorders. Dig Dis Sci 2017; 62(12): 3568-78.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-017-4680-1] [PMID: 28849329]
[11]
Kamuda JA, Mazzola N. Plecanatide (Trulance) for Chronic Idiopathic Constipation and Irritable Bowel Syndrome With Constipation. P&T 2018; 43(4): 207-32.
[PMID: 29622940]
[12]
Omer A, Quigley EMM. An update on prucalopride in the treatment of chronic constipation. Therap Adv Gastroenterol 2017; 10(11): 877-87.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1756283X17734809] [PMID: 29147138]
[13]
Siegers CP, von Hertzberg-Lottin E, Otte M, Schneider B. Anthranoid laxative abuse--a risk for colorectal cancer? Gut 1993; 34(8): 1099-101.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gut.34.8.1099] [PMID: 8174962]
[14]
Lacy BE, Gabbard SL, Crowell MD. Pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of bloating: hope, hype, or hot air? Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y) 2011; 7(11): 729-39.
[PMID: 22298969]
[15]
Warrier RR. Sapindus emarginatus Vahl.Palanisamy, K; Maheshwar Hedge; Kannan, CS; Warrier; Krishnamurthy Manual of economically important forestry species in South India. Coimbatore: IFGTB Publications 2012; pp. 395-400.
[16]
Niranjan PS, Basudep A. Advances in structural determination of saponins and terpenoid glycosides. Curr Org Chem 2001; 5(3): 315-34.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1385272013375607]
[17]
Grover RK, Roy AD, Roy R, Joshi SK, Srivastava V, Arora SK. Complete 1H and 13C NMR assignments of six saponins from Sapindus trifoliatus. Magn Reson Chem 2005; 43(12): 1072-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrc.1675] [PMID: 16142834]
[18]
Deshmukh A, Bansal L. Sapindus emarginatus Vahl as a natural scouring agent in the dyeing of cotton with Carissa carandas leaf extract. BioLife 2014; 2(2): 599-604.
[19]
Naidu CV, Rajendrudu G, Swamy PM. Effect of plant growth regulators on seed germination of Sapindus trifoliatus Vahl. Seed Sci Technol 2000; 28(2): 249-52.
[20]
Dhar JD, Bajpai VK, Setty BS, Kamboj VP. Morphological changes in human spermatozoa as examined under scanning electron microscope after in vitro exposure to saponins isolated from Sapindus mukorossi. Contraception 1989; 39(5): 563-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-7824(89)90111-X] [PMID: 2721200]
[21]
Khandelwal KR. Practical Pharmacognosy. New Delhi: Nirali Prakashan 2006.
[22]
Hudson BJ, Ei-Difrawi EA. The sapogenins of the seeds of four lupin species. J Plant Foods 1979; 3(3): 181-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0142968X.1979.11904227]
[23]
Capasso F, Mascolo N, Autore G, Romano V. Laxatives and the production of autacoids by rat colon. J Pharm Pharmacol 1986; 38(8): 627-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-7158.1986.tb03097.x] [PMID: 2876085]
[24]
Rtibi K, Selmi S, Saidani K, et al. Reverse Effect of Opuntia ficus-indica L. Juice and Seeds Aqueous Extract on Gastric Emptying and Small-Bowel Motility in Rat. J Food Sci 2018; 83(1): 205-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.13990] [PMID: 29165814]
[25]
Himanshu KS, Dushyant AS, Chirag AP, Grish KJ. Evaluation of anti-diarrheal activity of probiotic by castor oil induced diarrhoea in swiss albino mice model. Curr Bioact Compd 2018; 14(2): 142-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573407213666170221155223]
[26]
Wintola OA, Sunmonu TO, Afolayan AJ. The effect of Aloe ferox Mill. in the treatment of loperamide-induced constipation in Wistar rats. BMC Gastroenterol 2010; 10(1): 95.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-230X-10-95] [PMID: 20723249]
[27]
Nicoletti M. Nutraceuticals and botanicals: overview and perspectives. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2012; 63(1)(Suppl. 1): 2-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2011.628012] [PMID: 22360273]
[28]
Lim JM, Kim YD, Song CH, et al. Laxative effects of triple fermented barley extracts (FBe) on loperamide (LP)-induced constipation in rats. BMC Complement Altern Med 2019; 19(1): 143.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-019-2557-x] [PMID: 31226979]
[29]
Sharma A, Sati SC, Sati OP, Sati M. D, Kothiyal, S.K.; Semwal, D.K.; Mehta, A. A New Triterpenoid Saponin and Antimicrobial Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. J Chem 2012; 7: 2013.
[30]
Arulmozhi DK, Veeranjaneyulu A, Bodhankar SL, Arora SK. Effect of Sapindus trifoliatus on hyperalgesic in vivo migraine models. Braz J Med Biol Res 2005; 38(3): 469-75.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2005000300019] [PMID: 15761628]
[31]
Arulmozhi DK, Veeranjaneyulu A, Bodhankar SL, Arora SK. Investigations of Sapindus trifoliatus in dopaminergic and serotonergic systems: Putative antimigraine mechanisms. Indian J Pharmacol 2005; 37(2): 120.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0253-7613.15114]
[32]
Jayasree T, Basha G, Chandrasekhar N, Iqbal SU. Dixit. R.; Manohar, V.S. Evaluation into Antiepileptic Activity of Aqueous Extract of Sapindus trifoliatus (Pericarp) in Swiss Albino Rats. Asian J Pharmaceut Biol Res 2011; 1(4)
[33]
Surendra G, Deepthi R, Manjula CK, Gowd AK. Anti ulcer activity of Sapindus trifoliatus seed extracts. International Journal of Universal Pharmacy and Life Sciences 2012; 2(1): 233-7.
[34]
Devi VN, Rajakohila M, Syndia LA, Prasad PN, Ariharan VN. Multifacetious uses of soapnut tree-a mini-review. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2012; 3(1): 420-4.
[35]
Kanchanapoom T, Kasai R, Yamasaki K. Acetylated triterpene saponins from the Thai medicinal plant, Sapindus emarginatus. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2001; 49(9): 1195-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/cpb.49.1195] [PMID: 11558612]
[36]
Leng-Peschlow E. Dual effect of orally administered sennosides on large intestine transit and fluid absorption in the rat. J Pharm Pharmacol 1986; 38(8): 606-10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-7158.1986.tb03089.x] [PMID: 2876077]
[37]
Nijs G, de Witte P, Geboes K, Lemli J. Influence of rhein anthrone and rhein on small intestine transit rate in rats: evidence of prostaglandin mediation. Eur J Pharmacol 1992; 218(2-3): 199-203.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0014-2999(92)90169-5] [PMID: 1425942]
[38]
Johnson IT, Gee JM, Price K, Curl C, Fenwick GR. Influence of saponins on gut permeability and active nutrient transport in vitro. J Nutr 1986; 116(11): 2270-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/116.11.2270] [PMID: 3794833]
[39]
Stasi C, Sadalla S, Milani S. The Relationship Between the Serotonin Metabolism, Gut-Microbiota and the Gut-Brain Axis. Curr Drug Metab 2019; 20(8): 646-55.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389200220666190725115503] [PMID: 31345143]
[40]
Fatahala SS, Nofal S, Mahmoud E, Abd El-Hameed RH. Pyrrolopyrazoles: Synthesis, Evaluation and Pharmacological Screening as Antidepressant Agents. Med Chem 2019; 15(8): 911-22.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573406414666181108090321] [PMID: 30406741]
[41]
Tache Y, Larauche M, Yuan PQ, Million M. Brain and Gut CRF Signaling: Biological Actions and Role in the Gastrointestinal Tract. Curr Mol Pharmacol 2018; 11(1): 51-71.
[PMID: 28240194]
[42]
Sarrouilhe D, Clarhaut J, Defamie N, Mesnil M. Serotonin and cancer: what is the link? Curr Mol Med 2015; 15(1): 62-77.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1566524015666150114113411] [PMID: 25601469]
[43]
Lakshminarayana M, Shivkumar H, Rimaben P, Bhargava VK. Antidiarrhoeal activity of leaf extract of Moringa Oleifera in experimentally induced diarrhoea in rats. Int J Phytomed 2011; 3(1): 68.
[44]
Han SH, Hong KB, Kim EY, Ahn SH, Suh HJ. Effect of dual-type oligosaccharides on constipation in loperamide-treated rats. Nutr Res Pract 2016; 10(6): 583-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2016.10.6.583] [PMID: 27909555]
[45]
Choi JH, Jeong SH, Cho YH, Cho YK, Choi HY, Kim SI. Effects of bifidus enhance yogurt on relief from loperamide- induced constipation. Han-gug Chugsan Sigpum Hag-hoeji 2012; 32(1): 24-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2012.32.1.24]
[46]
Marrelli M, Conforti F, Araniti F, Statti GA. Effects of saponins on lipid metabolism: A review of potential health benefits in the treatment of obesity. Molecules 2016; 21(10): 1404.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules21101404] [PMID: 27775618]
[47]
Hoy SM, Scott LJ, Wagstaff AJ. Sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate: a review of its use as a colorectal cleanser. Drugs 2009; 69(1): 123-36.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00003495-200969010-00009] [PMID: 19192941]
[48]
Gao S, Basu S, Yang Z, Deb A, Hu M. Bioavailability challenges associated with development of saponins as therapeutic and chemopreventive agents. Curr Drug Targets 2012; 13(14): 1885-99.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138945012804545498] [PMID: 23140297]
[49]
Yu K, Chen F, Li C. Absorption, disposition, and pharmacokinetics of saponins from Chinese medicinal herbs: what do we know and what do we need to know more? Curr Drug Metab 2012; 13(5): 577-98.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389200211209050577] [PMID: 22292787]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 17
ISSUE: 6
Year: 2021
Published on: 05 October, 2020
Article ID: e010621186624
Pages: 12
DOI: 10.2174/1573407215999201005164239
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 66
HTML: 2