Background and Objective: Hypertension is a multifactorial disease where numerous
constitutive, genetic, and environmental factors interplay. Among the constitutive factors, age is a
major determent continuously reported to be associated with a significant increase in the prevalence
of hypertension. In addition to age, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection was also shown
to be associated. On the other hand, Vitamin D (Vit D) plays an important role in the development
of hypertension. In the current study, it was investigated whether H. pylori interacts with Vit D levels
to influence hypertension.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on seven hundred and eighty-two “a priori”
healthy individuals equally divided according to hypertension status. To study the association between
Vit D, H. pylori, and hypertension, a multivariate logistic regression model was used while
correcting for different confounding factors. Power analysis was also performed.
Results: Approximately half of the participants were hypertensive and had Vit D insufficiency and
they were also matched for age. Using a multiple logistic regression model, the results showed an
inversely proportionate association between H. pylori infection and the risk of hypertension
(OR=0.38, P<0.001). On the other hand, a proportionate association between Vit D deficiency and
hypertension was observed (OR=2.76, P=0.004). Furthermore, Vit D and H. pylori status interacted
to affect the risk of hypertension (OR=0.97, P=0.004). Stratification, according to Vit D status,
showed that 59.1% of Vit D deficient participants were infected with H. pylori organisms
(P<0.001). When taking hypertension, Vit D, and H. pylori statuses into account, it was found that
the prevalence of hypertension was doubled when the participants were negative for H. pylori infection
but had Vit D deficiency (P<0.001).
Conclusion: H. pylori infection and Vit D deficiency could predict hypertension. The odds of hypertension
development were double when the participants were negative for H. pylori infection
and had vitamin D deficiency.