Synthesis and Preclinical Evaluation of Indole Triazole Conjugates as Microtubule Targeting Agents that are Effective against MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell Lines

Author(s): Vidyasrilekha Yele*, Sai Kiran S.S. Pindiprolu, Sravani Sana, D.S.V.N.M. Ramamurty, Jayanthi R.K. Madasi, Swapna Vadlamani*

Journal Name: Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
(Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Cancer Agents)

Volume 21 , Issue 8 , 2021


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Abstract:

Background: Microtubules are considered to be an important therapeutic target for most of the anticancer drugs. These are highly dynamic structures comprising of α-tubulin and β-tubulin which are usually heterodimers and found to be involved in cell movement, intracellular trafficking, and mitosis inhibition of which might kill the tumour cells or inhibit the abnormal proliferation of cells. Most of the tubulin polymerization inhibitors, such as Vinca alkaloids, consist of Indole as the main scaffold. The literature also suggests using triazole moiety in the chemical entities, potentiating the inhibitory activity against cell proliferation. So, in our study, we used indole triazole scaffolds to synthesize the derivatives against tubulin polymerization.

Objective: The main objective of this study to synthesize indole triazole conjugates by using environmentally friendly solvents (green chemistry) and click chemistry. To carry out the MTT assay and tubulin polymerization assay for the synthesized indole triazole conjugates.

Methods: All the synthesized molecules were subjected to molecular docking studies using Schrodinger suite and the structural confirmation was performed by Mass, proton-NMR and carbon-NMR, documented in DMSO and CDCL3. Biological studies were performed using DU145 (prostate cancer), A-549 (lung cancer) and, MCF-7 (breast cancer), cell lines obtained from ATCC were maintained as a continuous culture. MTT assay was performed for the analogues using standard protocol. Cell cycle analysis was carried out using flow cytometry.

Results: The Indole triazole scaffolds were synthesized using the principles of Green chemistry. The triazole formation is mainly achieved by using the Click chemistry approach. Structural elucidation of synthesized compounds was performed using Mass spectroscopy (HR-MS), Proton-Nuclear Magnetic Spectroscopy (1H-NMR) and Carbon-Nuclear Magnetic Spectroscopy (13C-NMR). The XP-docked poses and free energy binding calculations revealed that 2c and 2g molecules exhibited the highest docking affinity against the tubulin-colchicine domain (PDB:1SA0). In vitro cytotoxic assessment revealed that 2c and 2g displayed promising cytotoxicity in MTT assay (with CTC50 values 3.52μM and 2.37μM) which are in good agreement with the computational results. 2c and 2g also arrested 63 and 66% of cells in the G2/M phase, respectively, in comparison to control cells (10%) and tubulin polymerization inhibition assay revealed that 2c and 2g exhibited significant inhibition of tubulin polymerization with IC50 values of 2.31μM, and 2.62μM, respectively in comparison to Nocodazole, a positive control, resulted in an IC50 value of 2.51μM.

Conclusion: Indole triazole hybrids were synthesized using click chemistry, and docking studies were carried out using Schrodinger for the designed molecules. Process Optimization has been done for both the schemes. Twelve compounds (2a-2l) have been successfully synthesized and analytical evaluation was performed using NMR and HR-MS. In vitro evaluation was for the synthesized molecules to check tubulin polymerization inhibition for antiproliferative action. Among the synthesized compounds, 2c and 2g have potent anticancer activities by inhibiting tubulin polymerization.

Keywords: Indole triazole conjugates, tubulin polymerization, antiproliferation, click chemistry, molecular modeling studies, breast cancer.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 21
ISSUE: 8
Year: 2021
Published on: 24 September, 2020
Page: [1047 - 1055]
Pages: 9
DOI: 10.2174/1871520620666200925102940
Price: $65

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